The first major component for maintaining a lawn is watering. A good rule of thumb to remember is that it's better to water your lawn heavily when it needs it than to water lightly but more frequently. In general, early morning is the best time for watering.
The next essential step is to keep your lawn mowed. By doing so, you'll be reducing the amount of work your lawn's root system has to do. Beyond that, mowing regularly makes it easier for the grass to grow. While watering and mowing should be done regularly, other maintenance-related tasks need to be performed periodically throughout the course of the year. For example, you should fertilize your lawn once or twice a year. Doing so will increase the amount of nutrients in your lawn's soil. Another important way to keep your lawn at its healthiest is to periodically aerate it. You should do this once a year, in the fall or spring. In order to make sure that the maximum amount of water and air continue to reach the soil under your lawn, you'll want to periodically grab a rake and de-thatch.
Another maintenance tasks that requires constant attention is weeding. However, this job is usually an easy one to perform, requiring that you merely pull out the unsightly weeds. For larger problems, spray an herbicide that's not highly toxic on the weeds. Similar to weeding, pest control is another necessary yet relatively easy job to perform. If bugs ever do destroy part of your lawn, you'll want to spray the infestation with certain bacteria or insecticides. The eighth major component of lawn maintenance is fighting disease. Fungi are usually the cause of a healthy lawn becoming diseased. You can use fungicides in order to destroy especially persistent fungi.