The South Pole Food Growth Chamber is located inside the new Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station, dedicated in January 2008 [source: The National Science Foundation and Sorenson]. While technically not a greenhouse because it doesn't use sun to heat or grow the plants, it's still an enclosed growing chamber [source: The Associated Press].
Delivered to the South Pole in 2004, the chamber uses artificial light, carbon dioxide and hydroponics, which uses nutrient-rich water instead of soil to grow plants [source: Barber]. The chamber is about 18 feet by 28 feet (approximately 6 meters by 9 meters) and grows everything from lettuce to hot peppers [sources: Barber and McGinley]. The chamber yields about 60 to 100 pounds (27 to 45 kilograms) of produce a week to feed the staffers in the station [source: Sorenson]. Along with food production, the chamber also provides green plant life and sunlight for staffers to enjoy during the long winters in the barren landscape of Antarctica [source: Sorenson].
Scientists hope that the science related to this greenhouse will translate to outer space environments such as Mars [source: Sorenson].
Whether used as a display garden or a food-producing plot, greenhouses create environments that allow plants to thrive in a range of countries worldwide.