Topiary is the cutting, shaping and trimming of trees and shrubs -- usually evergreens with thick leaves -- into a variety of artificial and ornamental shapes. Some forms are architectural, like cones and spires; others are representational, in the likeness of animals, people and other fanciful shapes. Those who create topiaries often refer to themselves as tree masons, topiary specialists and leafage sculptors. Topiaries are commonly made from robust plants such as box (as mentioned earlier) along with yew, cypress, bay and holly.
Bonsai is concerned with miniaturizing ordinary trees and shrubs by gently snipping and pruning the branches and root systems, along with wiring the trunks and branches in order to train the growth and shape of the plants. The goal is to make the bonsai -- any of a wide range of different flora -- look like a fully mature, dwarfed tree, often with an aged and weathered appearance. The container (commonly earthenware) that a bonsai is placed in is a fundamental component -- it must harmonize with and enhance the plant. The placement of a bonsai within its container is another important consideration so the branches can spread out properly [source: Encyclopedia Britannica].
Now that we know the basics about each of these types of floriculture (the cultivation of flowers and ornamental plants), let's examine the key differences. Some of the differences between bonsai and topiary are how they're handled and the goal for the final product.
Typically, topiaries are shaped into distinctly unplantlike embodiments through meticulous shearing and sculpting; bonsai are proportionally miniaturized through systematic pruning and training of both the branches and the roots. While the goal of both is to alter a plant's growth in order to create distinct shapes, different tools and methods are often called into play. Bonsai are meant to resemble smaller versions of trees and shrubs, complete with delicate spreading branches and a main viewing side. Usually, topiaries are encouraged to grow and flourish so they resemble solid statuary components in gardens -- one reason why they tend to be prevalent in places where stone is expensive.
Another fundamental difference is size. Although some versions of topiary can be diminutive, especially when plants are first starting out, most tend to become large garden fixtures over time. Bonsai on the other hand, are prized for their smallness. Some bonsai creations are cultured to grow large, up to 2 feet (about 60 centimeters) or more, but the majority are kept under that size. Some miniature bonsai are barely 2 inches (5 centimeters) tall.
Another difference between the art of bonsai and topiary is that the former espouses the idea that mankind is one with the natural world, while the latter generally expresses man's control over nature. Topiaries are often used to add structure and form to gardens, and bonsai are traditionally independent display pieces, cared for and handed down through the generations.
There are some similarities between these leafy sculptures, one being the time it takes to form them. Both bonsai and topiary can take years to develop fully and, depending on the size, the process of growing and shaping them can take more than a decade. To master each art form requires skill, patience and, above all, experience. While both are considered works of art, there's also a science behind caring for bonsai and topiaries. The versatility that each form of floriculture offers is a hallmark characteristic; the limit to what can be accomplished is often more rooted to the confines of the imagination than the possibilities of the plants.
Weeds overgrown in your backyard garden? To read more about the horticultural possibilities prowling around out there, continue to the next page.
Related HowStuffWorks Articles
More Great Links
- Baran, Robert. "The Big Picture: A Summary of the History of Magical Miniature Landscapes." PhoenixBonsai.com. (10/10/2008) http://www.phoenixbonsai.com/BigPicture.html
- "Bonsai." Encyclopedia Britannica. (10/10/2008) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/73235/bonsai
- "Bonsai and Penjing Questions and Answers." The United States National Arboretum. 10/15/2004. (10/10/2008) http://www.usna.usda.gov/Gardens/faqs/bonsaifaq2.html
- Crebbin-Bailey, James. Topiary Arts Web site. (10/10/2008) http://www.topiaryarts.com/
- Elias, Thomas. "History of the Introduction and Establishment of Bonsai in the Western World." National Bonsai Foundation. (10/10/2008) http://www.bonsai-nbf.org/site/images/Elias_Paper.pdf
- "Horticulture." Encyclopedia Britannica. (10/10/2008) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/272484/horticulture
- "Gardening and Landscape Design." Encyclopedia Britannica. (10/10/2008) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/225753/garden-and-landscape-design
- Olsen, Erik. "How to Grow Bonsai Trees." Bonsai Gardener. (10/10/2008) http://www.bonsaigardener.org/how-to-grow-bonsai-trees.html
- "Parterre." Encyclopedia Britannica. (10/10/2008) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/444794/parterre
- The European Boxwood and Topiary Web site. (10/10/2008) http://www.ebts.org/
- "The History and Mythology of Topiary and Baytrees." Floraselect Web site (10/10/2008) http://www.buy-garden-plants-online.co.uk/topiaryhistory.htm
- "Topiary." Encyclopedia Britannica. (10/10/2008) http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/599614/topiary