Challenges of Rammed Earth Construction
Mixing soils, building wall forms, ramming earth inches at a time…as you might guess, one of the main challenges of rammed earth construction is that it's very labor-intensive. In African and Middle Eastern countries, where labor is cheap, rammed earth construction is common and practical. In the United States, however, crews doing the same work can charge a pretty penny. Rammed earth builder David Easton estimates that a wall system in a rammed earth home can cost about 30 percent to 50 percent more than a conventional wood-frame house, which means the entire home might cost about 5 percent to 15 percent more [source: Fatsis].
In desert climates where the thermal mass of the walls can provide the sole means of heating and cooling, these construction costs might be a worthwhile investment. In other climates, additional insulation or energy sources might be needed for heating and cooling, which will further increase the costs. In rainy climates, for example, a rammed earth home might need additional insulation, as well as a larger roof, so that the overhangs protect the earthen walls. Rammed earth in rain-prone areas is acceptable, but the house site should be selected so that the home is protected as much as possible from the elements. Additional design features, such as good gutters and drainage systems that draw water away from the house, help protect against weather.
Like most alternative building methods, rammed earth homes might take more work to meet with approval by building officials, bankers and insurers. In the southwestern United States, there are several experienced builders and contractors, and rammed earth is starting to appear in building codes in that area. Outside of the Southwest, it's generally not mentioned and will require more research and persistence on the part of the person trying to get a construction loan, a mortgage or home insurance.
For more on rammed earth homes, including links to builders who specialize in this type of construction, see the next page.
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More Great Links
- Branch, Quentin and Julie Szekely. Rammed Earth Solar Homes Inc. Personal communication. April 2, 2008.
- Easton, David. "The Rammed Earth House." Chelsea Green Publishing. 2007.
- Fatsis, Stefan. "Earth Homes: Building mansions of soil." Wall Street Journal. Sept. 20, 1996.
- Kennedy, Joseph F. "An Overview of Natural Building Techniques." (Feb. 29, 2008)http://www.networkearth.org/naturalbuilding/overview.html
- Lund, Laurel. "Down to Earth." Natural Home. September 1999. (March 5, 2008)http://www.naturalhomemagazine.com/Remodeling-Redecorating/1999-09-01/Down-to-Earth.aspx
- McMeekin, John O. "How to build a rammed earth house." Mother Earth News. September/October 1973. (Feb 29, 2008)http://www.motherearthnews.com/Modern-Homesteading/1973-09-01/How-To-Build-a-Rammed-Earth-House.aspx
- "Sedimentary rock." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. (March 5, 2008)http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/532232/sedimentary-rock
- Sirewall Inc. "Earth Mass=Fire Resistance." The Dirt: Sirewall Newsletter. January 2008. (March 5, 2008)http://www.sirewall.com/wp-content/themes/sirewall/pdf/jan-08-newsletter.pdf
- Tibbets, Joseph M. "The Earth\builders' Encyclopedia." 1989. Excerpted by Soledad Canyon Earth Builders. (March 5, 2008)http://www.adobe-home.com/html/rammed_earth_history.html
- Whipple, Dan. "Ancient Building Blocks of Dirt." New West Magazine. Feb. 11, 2008. (March 5, 2008)http://www.newwest.net/magazine/article/ancient_building_blocks_of_dirt/C555/L555/