How Plasma Cutters Work

Inside a plasma cutter: The electrode is at the center, and the nozzle is just below it. The orange piece is the swirl ring, which causes the plasma to turn rapidly as it passes.

Photo courtesy Torchmate CNC Cutting Systems

Inside a Plasma Cutter

Plasma cutters come in all shapes and sizes. There are monstrous plasma cutters that use robotic arms to make precise incisions. There are also compact, handheld units that you might find in a handyman's shop. Regardless of size, all plasma cutters function on the same principle and are constructed around roughly the same design.

Plasma cutters work by sending a pressurized gas, such as nitrogen, argon, or oxygen, through a small channel. In the center of this channel, you'll find a negatively charged electrode. When you apply power to the negative electrode, and you touch the tip of the nozzle to the metal, the connection creates a circuit. A powerful spark is generated between the electrode and the metal. As the inert gas passes through the channel, the spark heats the gas until it reaches the fourth state of matter. This reaction creates a stream of directed plasma, approximately 30,000 F (16,649 C) and moving at 20,000 feet per second (6,096 m/sec), that reduces metal to molten slag.

The plasma itself conducts electrical current. The cycle of creating the arc is continuous as long as power is supplied to the electrode and the plasma stays in contact with the metal that is being cut. In order to ensure this contact, protect the cut from oxidation and regulate the unpredictable nature of plasma, the cutter nozzle has a second set of channels. These channels release a constant flow of shielding gas around the cutting area. The pressure of this gas flow effectively controls the radius of the plasma beam.

Click the On/Off switch to watch a plasma cutter in action.