This house uses standard asphalt shingles for the roof. The first step is to cover the roof with building paper (tar paper):
The shingles then go on very quickly (on this house, in less than a day):
In the following shot you can barely detect the ridge vent that runs along the peak of the breezeway roof. There is a vent like this along the peak of all the roofs.
This vent replaces the triangular "gable-end vents" found in older homes. Ridge vents give better circulation (especially when cathedral ceilings are used) and also prevent bats and squirrels from getting into the attic.
In the following shot, you can see the aluminum flashing that keeps water away from the walls at the points where the shingles touch the walls.
At the edge of the roof, the shingles are cut off with about 2 inches of overhang: